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What Is The Working Principle Of Lithium Battery

Aug 26, 2018

What is the working principle of lithium battery?

Lithium metal battery:

A lithium metal battery is generally a battery using manganese dioxide as a positive electrode material, metallic lithium or an alloy metal thereof as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution.

Electrical reaction: Li+MnO2=LiMnO2

Lithium Ion Battery:

A lithium ion battery is generally a battery using a lithium alloy metal oxide as a positive electrode material, graphite as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte.

The reaction occurring on the charged positive electrode is

LiCoO2==Li(1-x)CoO2+XLi++Xe-(electron)

The reaction occurring on the charging negative electrode is

6C+XLi++Xe- = LixC6

Rechargeable battery total reaction: LiCoO2+6C = Li(1-x)CoO2+LixC6

positive electrode

Cathode material: There are many optional cathode materials, and most of the mainstream products use lithium iron phosphate. Different cathode material comparisons:

LiCoO2

3.7 V

140 mAh/g

Li2Mn2O4

4.0 V

100 mAh/g

LiFePO4

3.3 V

100 mAh/g

Li2FePO4F

3.6 V

115 mAh/g

Positive electrode reaction: Lithium ions are embedded during discharge, and lithium ions are deintercalated during charging. When charging: LiFePO4 → Li1-xFePO4 + xLi+ + xe-discharge: Li1-xFePO4 + xLi+ + xe- → LiFePO4.

negative electrode

Anode material: Graphite is mostly used. New research has found that titanate may be a better material.

Negative electrode reaction: Lithium ion is deintercalated during discharge, and lithium ions are embedded during charging.

When charging: xLi+ + xe- + 6C → LixC6

When discharging: LixC6 → xLi+ + xe- + 6C

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